The Benefits Of Leather In Cars

In Article4 Minutes

Article

Leather has long been a symbol of luxury and quality in automotive interiors, offering many benefits beyond mere aesthetics. Here are some key advantages of using leather in cars:

Superior Quality and Craftsmanship

Leather is renowned for its durability and the high level of craftsmanship involved in its production. This ensures that car interiors made from leather not only look elegant but also withstand the test of time, making it an ideal material for car interiors that face constant use and exposure to various elements.

The tactile quality and unique scent of leather add to the premium experience, making each drive more enjoyable. Leather’s comfort and rich feel provide a sensory experience that synthetic materials can’t match.

Sustainability

Using leather in cars is a sustainable choice, as cattle hides a by-product of the food industry. Each year, 331 million cattle are processed, and a significant portion of the hides end up in landfill if not used. The automotive leather industry plays a crucial role in reducing this waste and promoting a circular economy.

Moreover, if the automotive industry increased the use of leather in cars by 10%, it would save millions more hides from landfill, significantly reducing CO2 emissions. Unlike vegan leather, which often relies on plastic-based materials, genuine leather has a lower environmental impact over its lifecycle. The responsible sourcing and use of leather in cars helps contribute to a more sustainable future for the automotive industry.

Advances in tanning and processing methods have greatly reduced leather's carbon footprint, minimising the overall environmental impact

Comfort and Performance

Leather seats provide superior comfort due to their natural breathability. This breathability ensures that the seats remain cool in summer and warm in winter, enhancing passengers’ overall comfort. Additionally, the softness and flexibility of leather make it a preferred choice for car seats, offering unparalleled comfort during long drives.

Leather’s durability ensures that car interiors remain in good condition for years, resisting wear and tear that is unmatched by synthetic alternatives. Unlike synthetic materials that can crack and wear out over time, leather maintains its integrity and appearance, providing long-term value, increasing the residual value.

Aesthetic Appeal

The visual and tactile appeal of leather is unparalleled. It adds a sense of sophistication and luxury to car interiors, making the driving experience more pleasurable.

Leather can also be customised with various colours and finishes, allowing car owners to personalise their interiors to match their tastes. Whether it’s a classic black, a bold red, or a subtle tan, leather can be tailored to fit any design preference.

Environmental Impact

Using leather in cars is environmentally beneficial. Leather production for automotive use involves sustainable practices, with significant efforts over the last few decades to reduce chemicals, water, and energy use. These advances in tanning and processing methods have greatly reduced leather’s carbon footprint, minimising the overall environmental impact.

The responsible sourcing of hides from the food industry and modern manufacturing processes ensure that leather remains a circular, viable option for car interiors. In contrast, ‘vegan leather’ often involves the use of fossil fuel-based materials that can be harmful to the environment, currently have no financially viable end of life, and end up in landfill.

In conclusion, leather offers significant benefits for automotive interiors, including unmatched quality, sustainability, comfort, aesthetic appeal, and a reduced environmental impact. Choosing leather enhances the driving experience and supports sustainable practices in the automotive industry.

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    Leather: The Sustainable Choice for Automotive Interiors

    In Article2 Minutes

    Article

    A recent study by MDPI underscores the environmental benefits of using leather in automotive interiors over synthetic alternatives such as vegan leather, leatherette, Piñatex®, and Desserto®.

    Leather’s superior biodegradability is a key advantage, significantly reducing its environmental footprint. When treated with environmentally friendly agents, leather decomposes much faster under composting conditions, making it a more sustainable option than its synthetic counterparts.

    Synthetic materials, often derived from petroleum-based components, pose a significant environmental challenge due to their non-biodegradable nature. These materials can persist in the environment for decades, contributing to pollution and waste management issues. In contrast, leather integrates more seamlessly into the natural cycle, breaking down more efficiently and thus supporting a circular economy. This biodegradability aspect positions leather as an eco-friendly option for those concerned about long-term environmental impacts.

    Furthermore, leather’s durability and luxurious appeal make it a sought-after choice for automotive interiors. While synthetic materials may seem cost-effective at first, they often lack the longevity of leather. Leather can withstand wear and tear over many years, reducing the need for frequent replacements and thereby minimising resource consumption and waste. This long lifespan makes leather a cost-effective choice in the long run and enhances the overall sustainability of automotive interiors.

    Synthetic materials, often derived from petroleum-based components, pose a significant environmental challenge due to their non-biodegradable nature.

    In addition to its durability and biodegradability, leather provides a unique aesthetic and tactile experience that synthetic alternatives struggle to match. Leather’s texture, breathability, and comfort make it a premium choice for car manufacturers and consumers alike. By opting for leather interiors, automotive manufacturers can offer a product that is not only luxurious but also aligned with sustainable practices, appealing to environmentally conscious consumers.

    In conclusion, leather stands out as the best material for automotive interiors, thanks to its superior environmental benefits, durability, and luxurious appeal. The findings from the MDPI study underscore the crucial role you play in selecting materials that promote sustainability and long-term ecological balance. For more details on the study, please visit the MDPI website.

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      Promoting Transparency in Automotive Interiors

      In Article3 Minutes

      Article

      A bill is currently passing through the New York State legislature that, if passed, will require automotive OEMs to accurately and clearly label the materials used inside their cars.

      With the recent rebranding of what was once called pleather to ‘vegan leather,’ the bill includes game-changing provisions, including “Materials Description – if the Interactive Interior Surface material is less than 70% of any defined material, a label must specify the percentage composition” and the “prohibition of marketing names causing confusion and deceptive practices, such as using terms like “leather” for materials not meeting the defined characteristics”.
      The proposed New York State Senate Bill S8835, known as the “Consumer Protection and Automotive Transparency Act,” mandates clear and accurate labelling of materials used in vehicle interiors. This bill aims to prevent deceptive marketing practices by ensuring consumers can easily identify materials such as leather, fabric, and plastics used in seating, steering wheels, and gear shifters. This legislation is crucial for the automotive industry as it promotes transparency, protects consumer rights, and fosters trust, leading to more informed purchasing decisions and a fair marketplace.

      Aims to prevent deceptive marketing practices by ensuring consumers can easily identify materials such as leather, fabric, and plastics used in seating, steering wheels, and gear shifters.

      The New York State Senate Bill S8835 has received significant backing, including substantial donations from the leather industry. Included in this support is The International Council of Tanners (ICT) and the German Leather Association, Verband der Deutschen Lederindustrie (VDL), have both stepped forward, with the ICT contributing $10,000 and the VDL adding $5,000. This endorsement from the leather industry serves as a powerful testament to the bill’s significance and the potential benefits it holds, and we urge others to join in their support.
      As One4 Leather, we fully support this bill and have consistently emphasised the importance of consumer choice. We advocate for allowing individuals to choose between leather and non-animal-based materials. However, having clear and transparent information about alternative materials is crucial to make well-informed decisions.
      For more information and to support the bill (if based in the US), visit NY Senate Bill S8835. To read more about the support from ICT and VDL, click here.

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        The Enduring Allure of Leather

        In Article1 Minutes

        Article

        For many, the smell of genuine leather is linked with unforgettable memories: those childhood trips in Grandad's car, visiting the furniture store, or your first leather jacket.

        The smell of leather can evoke powerful emotions and nostalgia. The aroma of leather is often associated with luxury and quality. Its scent signifies craftsmanship, durability, and attention to detail. This association with premium products enhances the overall appeal of the aroma. When you encounter the scent of leather, you often link it to well-made, long-lasting, and desirable items.

        Leather’s smell comes from the process of turning the rawhide into leather. This tanning process involves treating the raw animal skin with various substances, such as tannins, to prevent decomposition and enhance its strength and durability. Various fat liquors, oils, dyes, waxes and other treatments are added during retanning and finishing to improve softness and desired characteristics, all of which contribute to the distinct aroma of real leather.

        With the advent of fake or vegan leather, what will this generation’s memories be; plastic and chemicals?

        The aroma of leather is often associated with luxury and quality

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          Time To Recognise The Benefits Of Upcycled Natural Materials Like Leather

          In Article2 Minutes

          Article

          Reading about inconsistencies or inaccuracies in how materials are measured and reported and how these affect their potential inclusion or exclusion in the design and manufacturing of clothing, accessories, furniture, and automotive interiors is a regular occurrence.

          Recently, we highlighted that the Leather & Hide Council of America (LHCA) had funded a new, independent study into the carbon footprint of making leather from US cowhides. The study was conducted using lifecycle assessment (LCA) methodology. It considered water use, eutrophication, greenhouse gas emissions, toxicity to humans, ozone depletion, and the impact of chemicals on land and water. The study found that the Higg Index MSI overestimates leather’s climate impact by as much as 8,000 times.

          We have now encountered an article in Fashion Network that critically examines the Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) method. The article raises a fundamental question: is the PEF method a genuine tool for promoting sustainability or a mere distraction used by fast fashion companies to appear eco-friendly? The PEF method, endorsed by the European Commission, aims to standardise environmental impact measurement across product lifecycles, making it easier to compare and improve the sustainability of different products. However, it’s not without its critics. They argue that the PEF method has significant gaps, such as not fully addressing biodiversity loss, microfibre pollution, and human rights issues. There are also concerns about potential biases favouring synthetic fibres over natural ones. While the method is a step towards transparency, its limitations could have far-reaching implications for environmental and social impact.

          There are also concerns about potential biases favouring synthetic fibres over natural ones

          At what point will we stop and realise that using natural materials, such as leather, which is upcycled from a waste product of the food industry, is better for the planet than investing money in creating alternative materials, primarily made using some form of plastic? If we stop trusting what these measurement platforms are trying to lead us to believe and actually sit and think about it, surely the answer is obvious.

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            Incredible New Material Discovered

            In Article5 Minutes

            Article

            Imagine if we only discovered leather today for the first time. How do you think the story would read, maybe something like this….

            Breaking News: A ground-breaking natural material, dubbed ‘leather,’ has been discovered. Labelled as a saviour for our planet, this versatile substance is set to revolutionise many industries. From car seats to clothing, furniture to footwear, ‘leather’ is poised to replace fossil-based synthetic materials, thereby significantly reducing our carbon footprint and environmental damage.

            Little is known about this new discovery just now, but the team who made the breakthrough have stated they will be very transparent in the coming months and have declared they will make the science behind producing ‘leather’ available to everyone as the sooner the world can stop making plastic composite materials, the better it will be.

            So, what do we know about leather? In a first-seen report from the team, these are the details:

            It’s made from a by-product

            Remarkably, ‘leather’ comes from meat and dairy cattle hides and is classed as a by-product. Whilst the world has been eating meat, drinking milk and benefitting from the protein this provides, all the hides that have been discarded now have a home.

            It's safe to say the world will be a better, healthier, and more stylish place to live when we all have ‘leather’ in our homes, wardrobes, and car interiors.

            It’s natural and bio-based

            ‘Leather’ is a natural material with a biogenic carbon content of over 80%, and the team is confident that this will be close to 100% in the next few years.

            It reduces landfill and, therefore, Greenhouse Gases (GHG)

            Up until now, all these cattle hides (roughly 331 million per year) have been going to landfills, creating earth-shattering amounts of GHG. Early calculations by the team show that if the automotive industry adopts ‘leather’ for car interiors, it will save 644 million kg CO2e per year, and that’s without the savings of not producing the plastic composite materials they are currently using, which could more than double this figure.

            It’s part of the circular economy

            Everything is used, and nothing is wasted that we now we can make ‘leather’ from the hides. Upon reaching the end of its life, ‘leather’ can be composted to enrich the soil. This, in turn, nurtures grass growth, providing sustenance for the cows that initiate this regenerative cycle all over again.

            It’s so versatile

            It would seem there are so many uses for ‘leather’, and small tweaks in how it is made can result in different types and finishes. We’re told they can make leather any colour you want; they can digitally print on it to make fabulous designs; embossing the surface can produce consistent finishes, allowing hides with scars or insect bites to be used, instead of thrown away; quilting and perforations can be added to bring modern design ideas, and we’re hearing they have experimented putting electronics and buttons behind leather in car dashboards.

            It’s a high-performing material

            Tests show that leather is very durable and will last for decades with very simple maintenance. It also is breathable and adjusts to body temperature, making it comfortable to wear and sit on during long journeys in a car. ‘Leather’ is naturally flame retardant, unlike the plastic composite materials we are used to. Until now, we have been used to having to throw away and replace our plastic composite clothes; this will become a thing of the past. And no more trips to the car shop to get our seats recovered every 2 or 3 years as we’re told if we damage ‘leather’, it can be repaired!

            As we learn more from the team, who are currently sending out samples for us all to try, we will bring it to you. But it’s safe to say the world will be a better, healthier, and more stylish place to live when we all have ‘leather’ in our homes, wardrobes, and car interiors.

            Wow – what a story that would make.

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              The Plastic Elephant In The Room

              In Article5 Minutes

              Article

              Fashion trends and automotive interior design have been inextricably linked for decades, and the colours, materials and finishes we see on catwalks are often echoed in the latest car launches. A recent trend in fashion has been the introduction of ‘vegan leather’, bringing animal-free material that looks like leather to the masses. The media hype has taken this and made it seem like the planet's saviour, but recently, people are starting to understand the truth: it's made from plastic.

              Fast fashion has fully adopted vegan leather, and with good reason: it’s relatively inexpensive to make and can be sold as a premium product; it’s been given a thumbs up by certain fashion designers as being cruelty-free; the marketers come up with some fancy name but forget to inform you of the harm it’s doing to the planet.

              A report published by Consumption Research Norway (SIFO)* looks at understanding the growth in clothing and textile production, the plastification of these materials and the related environmental impacts (the plastic elephant in the room). Part of the report’s findings is that there are no clear strategies for reducing synthetic fibres or measures to halt plastification.

              Recently, the Renewable Carbon Initiative (RCI) has highlighted new data showing that crude oil products have a significantly higher CO2 footprint than previously calculated. The latest updates to the Swiss ecoinvent database have rectified the discrepancies with revised data for fossil raw materials and plastics. Germany-based Nova Institute analysed the effect of these updates, and results show the carbon footprint of fossil naphtha rose by 107% whilst PE saw an increase of 34%, PP of 30%, and PET of 26%**.

              The consequence of making “vegan leather” is creating a new linear material with a high percentage of plastic. Whether it’s virgin plastic or recycled, the impact on the planet from producing plastic is significant. These alternative leather materials are shown to have limited performance and, therefore, a reduced life span. These composite materials can’t be recycled and will inevitably end up in landfill, where it will take hundreds of years to decompose and release toxins and greenhouse gases into our land and oceans.

              The consequence of making “vegan leather” is creating a new linear material with a high percentage of plastic. Whether it's virgin plastic or recycled, the impact on the planet from producing plastic is significant.

              Leather is part of the circular economy, where every part of the cow is used, and nothing is wasted. The hides are upcycled into leather, a natural material with a biogenic carbon count of over 80%. Leather is naturally biodegradable; upon reaching its end of life, it can be composted to enrich the soil. This, in turn, nurtures the growth of grass, providing sustenance for the very cows that initiate this regenerative cycle all over again.

              Leather is naturally biodegradable. A rawhide will decompose quickly, and a tanned hide will take 10 to 50 years, depending on how it is processed. When you compare this to ‘vegan leather’, it’s a fraction of the time. With no current viable option but landfill, these plastic and fossil-fuel-based synthetics will still be around in 500 – 1,000 years, emitting dangerous gases and microplastics that are harmful to the environment and human health.

              In recent years, automotive tanneries have invested heavily in ensuring that leather is produced more sustainably and environmentally friendly, reducing carbon emissions. Current developments in sustainable tanning and finishing reduce the time it takes to biodegrade or turn into compost, further lessening the impact on the planet.

              With the recent EU vote for anti-greenwashing laws by an overwhelming majority, which will ban the use of environmentally friendly claims without proof, it will change how products are labelled, prevent unfounded durability claims, and stop companies trying to kid on that products made with plastic are ok because trees were planted to offset the carbon.

              With these new data and reports, increased knowledge of the harm plastics pose to our planet and upcoming greenwashing legislation, surely it’s time to eliminate the plastic elephant in the room and expand the use of natural, circular products such as genuine automotive leather.

              Reference And Sources Used
              * https://bit.ly/3SMd4t6

              ** https://bit.ly/48rpTz7

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                The Consequence Of Displacing Automotive Leather

                In Article, Fact3 Minutes

                Article

                With the recent EU vote for anti-greenwashing laws by an overwhelming majority, which will ban the use of environmentally friendly claims without proof, it will change how products are labelled, prevent unfounded durability claims, and stop companies trying to kid on that products made with plastic are ok because trees were planted to offset the carbon.

                What does this mean for automotive leather? Companies that make “vegan leather” will be required by law to stop making unsubstantiated claims about the green credentials of these materials. As reported by the Filk Institute, none of the leather alternative materials they tested perform anything like genuine leather regarding durability, cracking strength and tear resistance, and none of the tested substitutes could truly be called an “alternative” for leather.

                At the same time these new laws are coming into place, the leather industry is working hard to produce accurate Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) and to understand the impact leather has on the planet. More is being understood about Consequential LCA and system expansion with avoided processes and products. Hides are a by-product of the meat and dairy industry, and processing them into automotive leather displaces the need to create alternative “vegan-leather” materials.

                Companies that make “vegan leather” will be required by law to stop making unsubstantiated claims about the green credentials of these materials

                The consequence of making “vegan leather” is we are creating a new material that has a high percentage of plastic included. No matter whether it’s virgin plastic or recycled, the impact on the planet from producing plastic is significant. These alternative leather materials are shown to have limited performance and, therefore, a reduced life span. These composite materials can’t be recycled and will inevitably end up in landfill, where it will take hundreds of years to decompose and release toxins and greenhouse gases into our land and oceans.

                Let’s not forget the consequence when we displace automotive leather with a product that can be avoided; the cattle hides left over from the meat and dairy industry will also need to be disposed of, releasing millions of tonnes of additional and unnecessary CO2e, creating a double whammy for the environment.

                Indeed, this must raise questions as to why we would create new materials to displace genuine automotive leather, which we want to perform like leather but is ultimately harmful to the planet.

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                  Fact or Fiction: More water is used to make genuine automotive leather

                  In Fact, Article3 Minutes

                  Article

                  Water is one of the world's most important elements and is crucial in the production of genuine automotive leather, and its use and reduction are something the automotive tanneries take very seriously. Water usage has reduced significantly in the past few decades*, and the latest innovations will see this reduce further, lessening their impact on the planet.

                  It takes an average of 121 litres of water** to make 1m2 of finished automotive leather. A finished UK hide is, on average, 4.1m2 and weighs 3.7kg***, giving us a figure of 109 litres of water used to make 1kg of finished automotive leather. Please read this earlier article which lays out how and where the water is used during production.

                  Let’s review this against “vegan leather”, often quoted online and in the media as a more sustainable alternative to genuine leather. A large proportion of vegan leather contains a high percentage of plastic (PU, PVC and rPET), which is used to bond plant-based materials such as pineapple leaves, cork, apple peels, etc, to produce this artificial material.

                  Water is one of the world's most important elements and is crucial in the production of genuine automotive leather, and its use and reduction are something the automotive tanneries take very seriously.

                  Water is used at each phase of the plastic life cycle, from the extraction of oil or natural gas to the various steps involved in producing the resins that eventually give rise to different types of plastic. The total water footprint calculates the entire volume of freshwater consumed during the entire production process. It is important to include both the “blue” and “grey” components when calculating this. The blue water footprint encompasses water consumption during drilling, refining, and manufacturing, while the grey water footprint takes into account the water needed to mitigate pollution during the production process.

                  If we take the production of PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) as an example, the blue water footprint is quoted**** as 10 litres per kg, but when you add the grey water footprint, it rises to 235 litres per kg.

                  Some leather alternatives now claim to use rPET, and water is also heavily used in the recycling of plastic, as well as in the production process of the finished material. When you add these all together, the water required to make this leather alternative is two to three times that of genuine automotive leather, clearly showing why it’s a more sustainable choice for your car interior.

                  Reference And Sources Used
                  * https://sustainfashion.info/water-in-leather-production-the-incredible-shrinking-act/

                  ** www.cotance.com/doc/SER/European%20Leather%20Industry%20-%20Social%20and%20Environmental%20Report%202020%20-%20EN%20web.pdf

                  *** FAO Global compendium on conversion factors for raw hides and skins and leather using UK statistics

                  **** https://foodprint.org/blog/plastic-water-bottle/

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                    5 Reasons Why Leather Car Interiors Are the Sustainable Choice

                    In Article7 Minutes

                    Article

                    As a global collective, we are all focused on how we can reduce carbon emissions and our impact on the planet for current and future generations. Reducing the use of fossil fuels and reducing our reliance on them is critical, and the textile industry needs to play a big part in this.

                    Leather manufacturing has been featured in the press and self-serving websites in the last few years about how detrimental it is to the planet, but how accurate are these statements, and how many are myths with hidden agendas? Here are five good reasons to question what you’re led to believe.

                    1. Leather is upcycled from a waste product.

                    • Leather is a by-product of the meat and dairy industry, confirmed by the World Wildlife Federation (WWF) in 2022. The farmer receives just 1%-2% of the total value of the cattle from their hides, which indicates that cattle are not raised to make leather, it wouldn’t be financially viable.
                    • If animal hides weren’t used to make leather, they would be sent to landfills where they would rot and emit CO2. If the automotive industry stopped using leather in cars, an extra 644 million kg of CO2e would be emitted annually. Still, if they increased the use of leather in cars by just 10%, it would prevent 3.5 million hides from landfills, saving over 64 million kg of CO2

                    2. Using leather in cars prevents harmful virgin materials from being created

                    • Whilst the current demand for meat and dairy continues, there will always be cattle hides that we can use or discard. Using leather, an upcycled natural by-product, in a car interior is better for the planet than manufacturing a new leather alternative material.
                    • Synthetic alternatives to traditional leather, often called ‘Vegan Leather,’ primarily consist of artificial materials, typically comprising approximately 80-90% polyurethane (PU) or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) for binding. Some manufacturers of these alternatives engage in greenwashing; some claim to use recycled PET (rPET) and present it as environmentally friendly. The reality is that new virgin plastic needs to be produced to replace this to make new bottles, packaging, etc.1, resulting in the extraction of more fossil fuels from the earth, producing large amounts of CO2e that damage the planet. Why create a new, harmful product when a more sustainable, natural alternative exists?

                    Leather is part of a circular process where everything can be used, repurposed, or recycled. PU/PVC-based composite materials, often mixed with fruit or vegetables like pineapple or mushrooms, are part of a linear process as it's extremely difficult and expensive to recycle once discarded, so they are destined for landfill.

                    3. Leather is part of the circular economy

                    • Leather is part of the circular economy, where every part of the cow is used, and nothing is wasted. The hides are upcycled into leather, a natural material with a biogenic carbon count of over 80%. Upon reaching the end of its life, it can be composted to enrich the soil. This, in turn, nurtures grass growth, providing sustenance for the cows that initiate this regenerative cycle all over again.
                    • Compare this to most new plastic and fossil-fuel-based leather alternatives that are linear. Commonly, a plant-based material, like mushrooms or pineapple husks, is mixed with fossil fuels like PU or PVC (in the region of 80 – 90% of the total) to create a composite material. There is no simple or cost-effective way to recycle these products, so they end up in landfill, a “Take, Make, Waste” approach with a tangible impact on the planet. However, we are led to believe that they are more sustainable.

                    4. Leather has a long lifespan

                    • Fast fashion has become increasingly popular in society, but more and more people are understanding that ‘buy once, buy well’ is a more sustainable approach and better for the planet.
                    • Automotive leather, which is simple and cheap to maintain, will last decades, still look and perform great, and have a lower environmental cost-per-use impact throughout its lifetime. Most ‘vegan leather’, on the other hand, is likely to have a much shorter lifespan before it cracks and peels and needs replacing, usually with PU/PVC covers made from harmful petrochemical-based products.
                    • There have been high-profile cases in the media of car owners reporting significant issues with ‘vegan leather interiors’, which bubble and blister after short periods. These materials do not have the performance, durability, and lifespan of genuine leather and will likely need replacing during the car’s expected lifespan.

                    5.Leather reduces the impact on the planet

                    • Ocean plastic pollution has highlighted how important it is that materials can degrade back into the natural environment.
                    • Leather is naturally biodegradable. A rawhide will decompose quickly, and a tanned hide will take 10 to 50 years, depending on how it is processed. When you compare this to ‘vegan leather’, it’s a fraction of the time. With no current viable option but landfill, these plastic and fossil-fuel-based synthetics will still be around in 500 – 1,000 years, emitting dangerous gases and microplastics that are harmful to the environment and human health.
                    • In recent years, automotive tanneries have invested heavily in ensuring leather is produced more sustainably and environmentally friendly, reducing the carbon impact. Current developments in sustainable tanning and finishing reduce the time it takes to biodegrade or turn into compost, further lessening the impact on the planet.

                    1 https://www.packaginginsights.com/news/fabricating-the-loop-how-fashion-disrupts-the-circular-plastics-economy-and-what-the-eu-must-do.html

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